Your Hip Consists of two main parts that fit together like a ball and socket – the femoral head at the top of the leg & acetabulum in your pelvis. The cartilage between the femoral head and acetabulum provides cushioning between the bones and allows for smooth movements.
The total hip replacement is usually done when severe damage from arthritis or injury has made it difficult to perform daily activities without severe pain or restricted range of motion. During the procedure the femoral head and acetabulum are replaced with an artificial prosthetic component.
There are 3 Types of Hip replacement surgery available in medical field –
- Total Hip Replacement – (Arthroplasty)
- Partial Hip Replacement – (Hemiarthroplasty)
- Hip Resurfacing
Total Hip Replacement –
Total hip replacement is one of the most effective operations known and can give you many years of freedom from pain. In this surgery the real femoral head component is placed on the femoral stem. This can be made of metal or ceramic.
The main indication which can lead you to a total hip replacement surgery are –
- In case of Arthritis
- Analgesics and anti-inflammatories aren’t working for you.
- Limitations on daily activities, such as your leisure pastimes, sports, or job.
- Not able to sleep during nights due to severe pain.
- Mobility is difficult due to the stiffness of the hip.
Partial Hip Replacement –
Partial knee replacement simply refers to the replacement of only a portion of the knee joint through a smaller incision than a whole knee replacement.
Benefits of Partial Hip Replacement –
- Operation duration is shorter than usual
- Smaller Incision
- Hospital stay is short
- Recovery period is short
- Rarely required Blood transfusion
- Better movement of the knee
- Feels more like a normal knee
- Able to be more active than after a total knee replacement.
Hip Resurfacing –
Hip resurfacing is not a medical term, but the end result of this surgery is as similar as the partial hip replacement surgery. The original bone socket is left in place, and the damaged head of the femur is shaved down by a few millimetres and contoured to allow a metal cap to be put in place in a hip resurfacing treatment.
Hip Replacement – Surgical Procedure
An artificial hip prosthetic component consists of a cup called acetabular component and a stem end ball called the femoral component.
- Before your procedure you have given medications, and antibiotics that will help you to relax. Most minimally invasive anterior total hip replacements are done under spinal anesthesia, so you will be awake during your operation but feel no pain.
- Banked blood is arranged in case of emergency blood transfusion. Your surgeon will begin by making a 3 to 6 inches incision.
- This incision is significantly smaller than those made during other total hip replacement surgery. The femoral head will get dislocated by your surgeon from the acetabulum.
- The surgeon will then remove any damaged cartilage or bone in the acetabulum, reshape the acetabulum socket and secure the acetabulum space using special cements or screws.
- Turning next to the femur, your surgeon will remove the femoral head and shape the femur to fit into the prosthetic stem and secure the femoral head by using a femoral component.
- Once both components (Acetabulum component & femoral component) are firmly in place, your surgeon will slide the femoral component head into the acetabulum socket.
- After completing the procedure, your surgeon will test the movements of your leg and verify that each component is properly located with an X-Ray.
- Your Surgeon will close the incision by some stitches and leave you for the rest.